Glossary of Cerebral Palsy: Origins, Etiology, Aetiology, Causal Pathways
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy

Definitions as stated by The Online Medical Dictionary
Published at the Dept. of Medical Oncology,
University of Newcastle upon Tyne © Copyright 1997-2003

Cerebral Palsy

microcephaly - An abnormally small head of a newborn, a congenitally small brain.

dysmorphisms - Abnormality of shape.

intrauterine - In the uterus (the womb).

consanquinous - A relationship that share a common bloodline, descent from a common ancestor

pathological - The branch of medicine concerned with disease, especially its structure and its functional effects on the body.

monochorionicity - Relating to or having a single chorion; denoting monovular twins.

cytomegalovirus - Probably the most widespread of the Herpetoviridae group.
Infected cells enlarge and have a characteristic inclusion body (composed of virus particles) in the nucleus. Causes disease only in utero (leading to abortion or stillbirth or to various congenital defects), although can be opportunistic in the immunocompromised host.

toxoplasmosis - An acute or chronic, widespread disease of animals and humans caused by the obligate intracellular protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, transmitted by oocysts containing the pathogen in the faeces of cats (the definitive host), usually by contaminated soil, direct exposure to infected faeces, tissue cysts in infected meat or tachyzoites (proliferating forms) in blood.

listeria - A group of bacteria named after the English surgeon and apostle of antisepsis, joseph lister (1827-1912).

chorioamnionitis - An inflammatory process involving the chorion, its foetal blood vessels, the umbilical cord, and the amnion by extension of the inflammation, as the amnion itself has no blood supply. This inflammatory process is potentially fatal to mother and foetus.

coagulase - Any bacterial component or product which causes coagulation in plasma containing an anticoagulant such as citrate, heparin or oxalate. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococci and by yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.

TORCH Syndrome - A group of infections with similar clinical manifestations, although symptoms may vary in degree and time of appearance: toxoplasmosis, other infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, and herpes simplex. These infections might be associated with underlying HIV infection.

erythroblastosis fetalis - A condition which develops in the foetus due to an incompatibility between the mother's blood type (RH factor) and the baby's. Maternal antibodies, which enter the foetal circulation during delivery attack the baby's red blood cells leading to haemolysis (rupture of the cells). Symptoms include an infant with an enlarged liver and spleen, swelling, jaundice and anaemia.

bilirubin - A pigment produced when the liver processes waste products. A high bilirubin level causes yellowing of the skin.

globulin - A simple globular protein which cannot be dissolved in pure water but which can be dissolved if a salt is added to the water. It can also be precipitated out of solution and into a solid with a solution of ammonium sulphate at 50% saturation. Examples of globulin proteins are immunoglobulin and cryoglobulin.

intraventricular -Within a ventricle.

intracranial - Within the skull.

periventricular leukomalacia - A disease of premature or newborn infants hypoxic and ischemic in nature and leading to infarction of brain white matter and cerebral ventricle enlargement.

diplegia - Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body.

Spastic diplegia - A type of cerebral palsy in which there is bilateral spasticity, with the lower extremities more severely affected.

spastic hemiplegia - A hemiplegia with increased tone in the antigravity muscles of the affected side.

quadriplegia - Paralysis of all four limbs, both arms and both legs, as from a high spinal cord accident or stroke.

cretinism - Stunted body growth and mental development appearing in the first years of life resulting the inappropriate development of the thymus gland or inadequate maternal intake of iodine during gestation.

arachidonic acid - An essential dietary component for mammals. The free acid is the precursor for biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid derivatives including leucotrienes and is thus of great biological significance.

arachidonyl - Catalyses CoA-independent transfer of arachidonate from phosphatidylcholine to lysoplasmenylethanolamine

phosphoglycerol - constituents of nerve tissue, and involved in fat transport and storage.

glyceride - A lipid which consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acids attached to it.

endothelial - Pertaning to the layer of epithelial cells that lines the cavities of the heart and of the blood and lymph vessels and the serous cavities of the body, originating from the mesoderm

ethanolamine - A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odour. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove co2 and h2s from natural gas and other gases.

phosphoglycerides - Acylglycerol and diacylglycerol phosphates;constituents of nerve tissue, and involved in fat transport and storage.

linolenic acid - An 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds (9, 12, 15, octadecatrienoic acid) and isomers. Essential dietary component for mammals.

hemiplegia - Paralysis of one side of the body.

spastic hemiplegia - A hemiplegia with increased tone in the antigravity muscles of the affected side.

spastic diplegia - A type of cerebral palsy in which there is bilateral spasticity, with the lower extremities more severely affected.

hypotension - Abnormally low blood pressure, seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of it.

vasa previa - The umbilical cord vessels come before the foetal head during delivery

uterine rupture - A tearing of uterine tissue; it may be traumatic or spontaneous due to multiple pregnancy, large foetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.

intrapartum - During labour and delivery or childbirth.

cephalopelvic - Pertaining to the size of the foetal head in relation to the maternal pelvis.

encephalopathy - Any degenerative disease of the brain.

hypoxia - Reduction of oxygen supply to tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.

hypocalcaemia - Abnormally low calcium concentration, that can result in muscle cramps, abdominal cramps, spasms, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.

polycythaemia - Increase in the haemoglobin content of the blood, either because of a reduction in plasma volume or an increase in red cell numbers. The latter may be a result of abnormal proliferation of red cell precursors

hypoglycaemia - An abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood.

hypothyroxinemia - A subnormal thyroxine concentration in the blood.

haemophilus - A gram-negative bacteria that is a common cause for epiglottitis, meningitis, conjunctivitis, sepsis and respiratory infections.

Neisseria - Gram-negative nonmotile pyogenic cocci. Two species are serious pathogens, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

pertussis - An acute, highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract, most frequently affecting young children, usually caused by Bordetella pertussis, a similar illness has been associated with infection by B. Parapertussis and B. Bronchiseptica.

sepsis - The presence of organisms in the blood.

hyponatraemia - Abnormal decrease in blood sodium concentration.

hypoglycaemia - An abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood.

hypothyroxinaemia - A subnormal thyroxine concentration in the blood.

febrile - Pertaining to or characterised by fever.

septicaemia - Systemic disease associated with the presence and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood.

encephalitis - Inflammation of the brain.

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